Three factors causing soldering defects in PCB Circuit Board Assembly

1. Solderability of PCB Hole affects soldering quality

Poor solderability of the circuit board holes will result in false soldering defects, which will affect the parameters of the components in the circuit, resulting in unstable conduction of the multi-layer board components and inner circuits, causing the entire circuit to fail. The so-called solderability is the property that the metal surface is wetted by molten solder, that is, a relatively uniform continuous smooth adhesion film is formed on the metal surface where the solder is located.

The main factors that affect the solderability of printed circuit board are:

(1) The composition of the solder and The nature of the components.
Solder is an important part of the welding chemical treatment process. It is composed of chemical materials containing flux. Commonly used low-melting eutectic metals are Sn-Pb or Sn-Pb-Ag. The impurity content must be controlled in a certain proportion to prevent the oxides generated by the impurities from being dissolved by the flux. The function of the flux is to help the solder wetting the surface of the circuit to be soldered by transferring heat and removing rust. White rosin and isopropanol solvents are generally used.

(2)The Soldering temperature and the cleanliness of the PCB surface will also affect the solderability.
If the temperature is too high, the solder diffusion speed will increase. At this time, it will have a high activity, which will cause the circuit board and the molten surface of the solder to oxidize rapidly, resulting in soldering defects. Contamination on the surface of the circuit board will also affect the solderability and cause defects. These defects Including tin beads, tin balls, open circuits, poor gloss, etc.

2. Soldering defects caused by warpage

Circuit boards and components warp during the soldering process, and defects such as false soldering and short circuit due to stress deformation. Warpage is often caused by the temperature imbalance of the upper and lower parts of the circuit board. For large PCBs, warping will also occur due to the drop of the board’s own weight. The ordinary PBGA device is about 0.5mm away from the printed circuit board. If the device on the circuit board is large, the solder joint will be under stress for a long time as the circuit board cools down and the solder joint will be under stress. If the device is raised by 0.1mm, it is enough to cause solder open circuit.

3. The design of the circuit board affects the soldering quality

In the layout, when the circuit board size is too large, although the soldering is easier to control, the printed lines are long, the impedance increases, the anti-noise ability decreases, and the cost increases; If it is too small, the heat dissipation will decrease, the welding is not easy to control, and the adjacent lines will interfere with each other, such as the electromagnetic interference of the circuit board. Therefore, the PCB board design must be optimized:

(1) Shorten the connection between high-frequency components and reduce EMI interference.
(2) Components with heavy weight (such as more than 20g) should be fixed with brackets and then soldered.
(3) The heat dissipation problem should be considered for heating elements to prevent defects and rework caused by large ΔT on the surface of the element, and the thermal element should be far away from the heat source.
(4) The arrangement of the components is as parallel as possible, which is not only beautiful but also easy to weld, and is suitable for mass production. The circuit board is best designed as a 4:3 rectangle. Do not change the wire width to avoid wiring discontinuities. When the circuit board is heated for a long time, the copper foil is easy to expand and fall off. Therefore, avoid using large-area copper foil.

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